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2020年考研英语(二)真题答案解析

来源:www.sjtuky.com 作者:鸿知上交大考研网 浏览:113 次 发布时间:2019/12/20

2020年的考研初试已落下帷幕,各个科目的考研真题以及答案解析也已新鲜出炉,不管考得如何,只要你认真待之,就无后悔可言,因为它已成为你人生中不可或缺的宝贵经历之一,不时回忆起,也会为那个为了梦想坚持、努力的自己骄傲。下面,鸿知上交大考研就为各位考生整理发布2020年各个科目的真题。

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2020年考研英语(二)真题答案解析


Section I Use of English

Directions

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Being a good parent is, of course, what every parent would like to be. But defining what it means to be a good parent is undoubtedly very __1__, particularly since children respond differently to the same style of parenting. A calm, rule-following child might respond better to a different sort of parenting than, __2__, a younger sibling.

__3__, there’s another sort of parent that’s a bit easier to __4__: a patient parent. Children of every age benefit from patient parenting. Still, __5__ every parent would like to be patient, this is no easy __6__. Sometimes parents get exhausted and frustrated and are unable to maintain a __7__ and composed style with their kids. I understand this.

You’re only human, and sometimes your kids can __8__ you just a little too far. And then the __9__ happens: You lose your patience and either scream at your kids or say something that was a bit too __10__ and does nobody any good. You wish that you could __11__ the clock and start over. We’ve all been there.

__12__, even though it’s common, it’s important to keep in mind that in a single moment of fatigue, you can say something to your child that you may __13__ for a long time. This may not only do damage to your relationship with your child but also __14__ your child’s self-esteem.

If you consistently lose your __15__ with your kids, then you are inadvertently modeling a lack of emotional control for your kids. We are all becoming increasingly aware of the __16__ of modeling tolerance and patience for the younger generation. This is a skill that will help them all throughout life. In fact, the ability to emotionally regulate or maintain emotional control when __17__ by stress is one of the most important of all life’s skills.

Certainly, it’s incredibly __18__ to maintain patience at all times with your children. A more practical goal is to try, to the best of your ability, to be as tolerant and composed as you can when faced with __19__ situations involving your children. I can promise you this: As a result of working toward this goal, you and your children will benefit and __20__ from stressful moments feeling better physically and emotionally.

1. A tedious B pleasant C instructive D tricky

2. A in addition B for example C at once D by accident

3. A fortunately B occasionally C accordingly D eventually

4. A amuse B assist C describe D train

5. A while B because C unless D once

6. A answer B task C choice D access

7. A tolerant B formal C rigid D critical

8. A move B drag C push D send

9. A mysterious B illogical C suspicious D inevitable

10. A boring B naive C harsh D vague

11. A turn back B take apart C set aside D cover up

12. A overall B instead C however D otherwise

13. A like B miss C believe D regret

14. A raise B affect C justify D reflect

15. A time B bond C race D cool

16. A nature B secret C importance D context

17. A cheated B defeated C confused D confronted

18. A terrible B hard C strange D wrong

19. A trying B changing C exciting D surprising

20. A hide B emerge C withdraw D escape

今年完形填空的难度系数很小,基本无生词,长难句也很少。讲的是家长对孩子要有耐心,属于比较生活的话题。下面我们一起来看一下答案及解析。

1.【答案】D tricky

【解析】此处考察词义辨析+上下文语境。文章首段首句为主题句:每位父母都想成为好的父母。空格句开头为but,句意上出现了转折,但是如何定义好的父母是个难题since后给出了原因,因为不同的孩子对待同样的养育方式反应也是不同的tricky意为棘手的,困难的,符合句意。

2.【答案】B for example

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。前面说了不同的孩子对待同样的养育方式反应也是不同的,此句为例证,如果换一种养育方式,一个冷静而听话的孩子可能会比他的弟弟或妹妹反应更好些。所以用表示举例分析的for example最合适,其他选项另外、偶尔、意外地都不合适。

3.【答案】A Fortunately

【解析】此处考察副词词义辨析+上下文语境。空格所在句指出:还有一类父母描述起来会容易一些,这类就是非常耐心的父母。第一段告诉我们如何定义怎样才是好的父母是个难题,这里在上下文文义上是个转折,幸运地是/还好,有一类父母比较容易定义,并且各个年龄段的孩子都可以从他们的养育方式中获益。故选Fortunately,其他选项偶尔,对应地,最终地都不合适。

4.【答案】C describe

【解析】 此处考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。第一段告诉我们如何定义怎样才是好的父母是个难题,第二段出现转折说但是有一类父母很好描述/定义,describedefine相呼应,故选C符合句意。

5.【答案】A while

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。空格所在句指出:虽然每位父母都想成为耐心的父母,但这并不容易。逗号前后为转折关系,四个选项中while表转折,选A符合句意。

6.【答案】B task

【解析】此处考察名词词义辨析。虽然每位父母都想成为耐心的父母,但这不是个容易的差事/任务。task意为任务,其余选项答案,选择,途径/权限都不合适,故选B符合句意。

7.【答案】A tolerant

【解析】此处考察形容词词义辨析。空格所在句指出有时父母会很累很沮丧,这时候对待孩子就很难沉着冷静(composed)和包容。tolerant意为包容的,故选A符合句意。

8.【答案】C push

【解析】此处考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。你也不是圣人/你也只是普通人,而且有时候孩子会把你逼的很紧。push为催促/紧逼,此处move(移动,使感动)drag(拖拽)send(发送)均不符合句意,故选C

9.【答案】D inevitable

【解析】此处考察形容词词意辨析+上下文语境。空格前一句指出:有时候孩子会把你逼的很紧。空格后一句指出你会失去耐心,对孩子大吼大叫。那么这是孩子把你逼的很紧的必然结果,inevitable 为无法避免的/必然的,故选D符合句意。

10.【答案】C harsh

【解析】此处考察词义辨析+上下文语境。空格句句意:你会失去耐心并对孩子大吼大叫,而且有时候会说一些很伤人/刻薄的话,对每个人都没好处。根据上下文,something 后面的形容词一定是贬义的,harsh为刺耳的/严格的,故选C

11.【答案】A turn back

【解析】此处考察动词搭配+上下文语境。空格句句意:你会希望时间倒流,一切重新再来。turn back(使)往回走,take apart 为拆开/拆解,set aside为把....放一旁/不理会,cover up为盖起来,均不符合句意,故选A

12.【答案】C however

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。空格句指出:然而,即使是这是很普遍的现象,我们还是要牢记,哪怕只是一点点的疲惫,都会让你对孩子说一些你会后悔很久的话。上一段描述了一般情况下父母是如何对孩子失去耐心,并且这很普遍(We've all been there/it's common),空格句对比上一段发生了转折,故选C

13.【答案】D regret

【解析】此处考察动词词义辨析+上下文语境。上一段描述了父母如何对孩子失去耐心,然后又希望时间倒流一切重新再来,那么疲惫时对孩子说的话一定是会让你后悔(regret)的,其他选项喜欢,错过,相信均不符合上下文,故选D

14.【答案】B affect

【解析】考察动宾搭配。结合原文语境,这也许不仅会伤害你和孩子之间的关系,而且会...你的孩子的自尊所以这里填上一个动词接后面的宾语自尊心,所以答案只能是affect,“影响自尊心。而raise提高,养育;justify证明合理性;reflect影响,均不能合理搭配。

15.【答案】D cool

【解析】本题考察动宾搭配,也是主题复现,cool冷静之意。如果你总是对你的孩子失去...,”本文一直在探讨的主题就是对孩子要有耐心,因此符合题意的只能是cool, time时间,bond结合,纽带,race比赛,种族都不符合这里的语境。

16.【答案】C importance

【解析】本题考察名词的修饰关系,A of B的结构中填名词A,主要参照后面of结构对它的修饰作用。Of结构在这里表示建立对孩子宽容和耐心的...”联系前面说我们越来越重视...”因此符合题意的应该是importance“重要性”nature,自然、天性;secret秘密,context环境。

17.【答案】D confronted

【解析】本题考查动宾搭配,根据本题语境,事实上,在....压力时情绪调节或维持情绪控制的能力是所有生活技能中最重要的一项,压力前面应该搭配面对故选择confronted其他的cheated欺骗,defeated打败,confused困惑均不符合。

18.【答案】B hard

【解析】此处考察表语形容词。主要参照跟前面的incredible加起来表示不可避免的...一直对孩子保持耐心可以先看选项terrible糟糕的,strange奇怪的,wrong错误的,这三个都不能放在此处形成合理搭配,所以hard更合适。

19.【答案】A trying

【解析】本题考察修饰关系。根据原文语境一个更实际的目标是去尝试,尽你最大的能力,当你面对涉及孩子的...情况时,尽可能地宽容和冷静需要父母宽容和冷静的应该是不太好的情况,答案trying做形容词表示令人厌烦的最合适。changing变化,exciting激动人心的surprising令人惊讶的,均不能体现这里的含义。

20.【答案】B emerge

【解析】考察动宾搭配,这里的句义是朝着这个目标努力的结果是,你和你的孩子将受益并从很有压力的这些时候...,在身体和情感上感觉更好。只有浮现,出现最符合,所以选择emerge, 而hide隐藏,withdraw撤退,escape逃避均为负面含义,故不符合。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals form robotic rats.

They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat- one social and one asocialfor 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side

Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We' d assumed we' d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary, ”says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,”says Wiles.

21. Quin and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can________

[A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

[B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

[C] attain sociable traits through special training

[D] send out warning messages to their fellow

22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?

[A] It followed the social robot.

[B]It played with some toys.

[C] It set the trapped rats free.

[D]It moved around alone.

23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they________

[A] tried to practice a means of escape

[B] expected it to do the same in return

[C] wanted to display their intelligence

[D]considered that an interesting game

24. James Wiles notes that rats________

[A]can remember other rat's facial features

[B] differentiate smells better than sizes

[C] respond more to cations than to looks

[D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

25. It can be learned from the text that rats________

[A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

[B] are more socially active than other animals

C] behave differently from children in socializing

[D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected

21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn and her colleaguesa test定位到第一段第二句。To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats. 为了查明这是否延伸到了非生物,Quinn和她的同事测试了老鼠能否从机器老鼠身上探测到社会信号。正确答案A是原文的同义替换。选项Bdistinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one区分友好的老鼠和敌对的老鼠,并未提及,是常识性干扰。选项Cattain sociable traits through special training通过特殊训练获得社交品质,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项Dsend out warning messages to their fellow向它们的同伴发出警告信息,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。

22.【答案】D It moved around alone.

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the asocial robotexperiment定位到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.同时,不具有社交能力的机器人只能进行简单的前后左右移动。正确答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同义替换。选项AIt followed the social robot.它跟随具备社交能力的老鼠,与原文the social robot rat followed the living rats around不符,原文说的是具备社交能力的老鼠跟随真老鼠,属于张冠李戴。选项BIt played with some toys.它玩一些玩具,与原文不符,原文中说的是具备社交能力的老鼠玩同样的玩具,属于张冠李戴。选项CIt set the trapped rats free.它释放了被困的老鼠也与原文内容不符,原文说的同样是具备社交能力的老鼠,而题干问的是不具备社交能力的老鼠在实验中做了什么,属于张冠李戴。

23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinnthe rats released the social robots往下定位到第四五段,第五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn. Quinn说:这可能会让老鼠更好地记住早些时候已经释放了机器人,并希望机器人在它们被困住时能回报它们的恩惠。正确答案B expected it to do the same in return是原文的同义替换。干扰项A tried to practice a means of escape试图尝试一种逃跑的方法,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项C wanted to display their intelligence想要展示它们的智慧,文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项Dconsidered that an interesting game觉得是个有趣的游戏在原文当中也没有体现,属于无中生有。

24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词James Wiles定位到第六七段,尾段尾句We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles. Wiles说:我们人类似乎对机器人很着迷,事实证明其他动物也很着迷。再结合尾段前面部分的阐述,会发现正确答案C respond more to actions than to looks对行动的反应多于对外表的反应,是原文的类似表达。干扰项Acan remember other rat's facial features能够记住其他老鼠的面部特征,与原文内容不符,原文第六段说的是假设赋予机器老鼠面部特征,那都不重要,属于偷换概念。选项Bdifferentiate smells better than sizes与体型大小相比,能够更好地区分气味,原文中只提到赋予机器老鼠真老鼠的气味,与原文不符,属于偷换概念。选项Dcan be scared by a plastic box on wheels会被装有轮子的塑料盒子吓坏,文中机器老鼠只是装有轮子的塑料盒子,还是属于偷换概念。

25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected

解析:本题目为推断题,考察基于全文主旨进行推断。题干并没有具体关键词,因此需要通过选项回到文中逐一对应。正确答案D are more sensitive to social cues than expected对社交线索比预期更敏感,与原文尾段首句The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots.(这一发现显示了老鼠对社交暗示的敏感程度,即使是来自基本机器老鼠的社交暗示)属于类似表达。选项Aappear to be adaptable to new surroundings似乎能适应新环境,在文中并未提及,属于无中生有。选项Bare more socially active than other animals比其他动物更活跃,文中只提到其他动物也一样会对机器人着迷,属于偷换概念。干扰项Cbehave differently from children in socializing在社交活动中表现得与孩子不同,与原文内容相反,原文内容指的是孩子们倾向于把机器人当作人来对待,即使他们只显示简单的社会信号。这一点与老鼠是一样的,属于正反混淆。

Text 2

It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.

The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there' s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.

The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn't explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”

Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

[A] The growth in the number of corporations

[B] The general pay rise with a better economy

[C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

[D] Close cooperation among leading economies

27. Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to______

[A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

[B] finance more research and development

[C] establish closer ties with tech companies

[D] operate more globalized companies

28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______

[A] continual internal opposition

[B] strict corporate governance

[C] conservative business strategies

[D] Repeated government warnings

29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______

[A] confirm the status of CEOs

[B] motivate inside candidates

[C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

[D] increase corporate value

30. The most suitable title for this text would be______

[A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

[B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

[C] CEOs' challenges of Today

[D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因的提问,定位到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.了解CEO薪酬增长的最佳模式是,CEO人才在一个顶级公司的商业机会迅速增长的世界里是有限的。正确答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms增加顶级公司商业机会的增加。干扰项AThe growth in the number of corporations公司数量的增长,文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会,属于偷换概念。选项BThe general pay rise with a better economy好转的经济带来的普遍加薪,文中并未提到better economy,属于无中生有。选项DClose cooperation among leading economies 主要经济体之间的密切合作,文中也并未提到经济体之间的何做,属于无中生有。

27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词predecessorstoday's CEOs定位到第三段第二句They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. 他们还需要比他们的前任更好的公关技巧,因为即使是一个小失误的成本也可能是巨大的。选项中并未提到,继续往后看Then there's the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. 还有一个事实是,美国的大公司比以往任何时候都更加全球化,供应链遍布更多的国家。正确答案D operate more globalized companies经营更全球化的公司是该句内容的同义替换。干扰项Afoster a stronger sense of teamwork培养更强的团队合作意识,文中提到意识,只有对金融市场有很好的了解,甚至公司应该如何进行交易的意识,属于偷换概念。选项Bfinance more research and development资助更多的研发,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项Destablish closer ties with tech companies与科技公司建立更紧密的联系,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the 1970s定位到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. 然而,首席执行官的薪酬主要是在这一治理更加有力的时期一直居高不下。正确答案B strict corporate governance严格的公司管理,属于原文内容的替换表达。干扰项Acontinual internal opposition持续的内部对立在文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C conservative business strategies 保守的商业策略,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项Drepeated government warnings 政府的再三警告定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

29.【答案】D increase corporate value

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词High CEO pay及顺序出题规则,继续看尾段,定位句是And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.当公司把首席执行官的薪酬与股票价格挂钩时,股票市场的反应是积极的,这表明这些做法不仅为首席执行官带来机制,而且创造了公司价值。正确答案D increase corporate value增加公司价值,是原文内容的替换表达。干扰项Aconfirm the status of CEOs证实CEO的地位,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项Bmotivate inside candidates激发内部候选人的积极性,文中尾段首句首席执行官的最高薪水是付给外部候选人的,而不是付给那些舒适的内部人选,属于偷换概念。选项Cboost the efficiency of CEOs提高CEO的效率,定位段未提到,属于无中生有。

30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

解析:本题目为主旨题,考察文章主旨。根据题干分析文章主题词为CEO的薪酬,所以排除C项、D项选项ACEOs Are Not Overpaid 首席执行官的薪水并不高。选项BCEO Pay: Past and Present CEO的薪酬:过去和现在,而CEO过去的薪酬并不是原文中心,属于偏离主题,因此正确选项为A

Text 3

Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.

Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city 's decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's future looks uncertain at best.

Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual driverswho must pay fees or buy better vehicles rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.

It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents' health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.

But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governmentsBritain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.

Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.

31. Which of the following is true about Madrid's clean air zone?

[A] Its effects are questionable

[B]It has been opposed by a judge

[C] It needs tougher enforcement

[D] Its fate is yet to be decided

32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?

[A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

[B] They prove impractical for city councils.

[C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will .

[A] arouse strong resistance.

[B] ensure Khan's electoral success.

[C] improve the city s traffic.

[D] discourage car manufacturing.

34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

[A] Local residents

[B]Mayors.

[C] Councilors.

[D] National governments.

35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.

[A] will raise low-emission car production

[B]should be forced to follow regulations

[C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

[D] should be put under public supervision

31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid's clean air zone定位到前两段,首段说明背景Madrid's clean air zone的执行暂停。继续找第二段,尽管能够提高空气质量,但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收罚款的决定,下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的进行,Madrid's clean air zone的未来看起来也不确定。正确答案D Its fate is yet to be decided它的命运尚未决定,是原文内容的替换表达。选项A Its effects are questionable.其效果值得怀疑。与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。选项BIt has been opposed by a judge.它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid's clean air zone,而是停止征收罚款的决定。选项CIt needs tougher enforcement.它需要更严格的执行。文中是执行已经停止,与原文内容不符,属于偷换概念。

32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measurestackle dirty air定位到第三段第二句:That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的费用转嫁给那些必须支付费用或购买更好车辆的司机,而不是汽车制造商,因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染的真正原因。正确答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.他们给个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。选项A They are biased again car manufactures.他们对汽车制造商有偏见,文中提到汽车制造商,却并未提到对其有无偏见,属于偷换概念。选项BThey prove impractical for city councils.这些措施对市议会来说是不切实际的。选项CThey are deemed too mild for politicians.他们被认为对政治家来说太温和了。定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 extensionLondon’s Ulez定位到第四段:And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan2021年胜出,并按照他的意愿将其延伸至南北环路,肯定会引发更多驾车者的强烈反对,届时他们将受到影响。正确答案A arouse strong resistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。选项Bensure Khans electoral success确保Khans选举成功,文中提到的是如果这个人赢了,属于偷换概念。选项C improve the city's traffic改善城市交通,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项Ddiscourage car manufacturing抑制汽车制造业也并未在定位段提到,属于无中生有。

34.【答案】D National governments

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干信息,问的是作者的具体观点。定位到第六段:But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain's and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市长和议员们只能对一个比任何一个城市或城镇都大得多的问题做这么多的工作。他们之所以采取行动,是因为英国和欧洲其他国家的政府未能做到这一点。正确答案D National governments作者认为国家政府应该解决这个问题,与原文内容一致。选项A Local residents当地居民,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项BCmayors and councillors出现在定位句,但是与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。

35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations

解析:本题目为推断题,考察具体细节的推断。根据题干信息auto companies,定位到尾段首句:require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance要求汽车公司使其车辆符合要求。正确答案B should be forced to follow regulations应该被迫遵守规定,与原文信息一致。选项A will raise low-emission car production将提高低排放汽车产量,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项CDwill upgrade the design of their vehicles should be put under public supervision将升级他们的车辆设计、应该接受公众监督在原文中没有相关信息。

Text4

Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this springthe most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was bom after 1995, give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that's tighter than it's been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.

If"entitled"is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those bom between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and expert who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren,'t interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the great good.

36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_____.

[A] are recognized for their abilities

[B] are in favor of job offers

[C] are optimistic about the labor market

[D] are drawing growing public attention

37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_____.

[A] what a tough economic situation is like

[B] what their parents expect of them

[C] how they differ from past generations

[D] I how valuable a counselors advice is

38. The word"assuage"(line 9, para 2)is closet in meaning to_____.

[A]define [B]relieve [C] maintain [D] deepen

39.It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_____.

[A] care little about their job performance

[B] give top priority to professional training

[C]think it hard to achieve work-Life balance

[D] have a clear idea about their future job

40 Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are_____.

[A]less realistic B] less adventurous [C]more diligent [D] more generous

36. Care drawing growing public attention细节题。根据题干直接定位到文章根据提干第一段第一句话。信息选项中的“drawing growing public attention ”则对应到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks” (近几周的关注度在稳步提高)”,其中attention原词复现,risinggrowing同义复现;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

37. Bwhat a tough economic situation is like;细节题。根据题干中询问Generation Z的特点我们来到第二段。题干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四行”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like(经济列车受到重创是什么样子的)”;信息选项中的“tough economic situation ”则对应到句中的“economic train wreck ”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

38. Crelieve;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第九段第二句话:“The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt”,所以解题的关键是判断”The booming economy(繁荣的经济)””generational sense of anxious urgency(代际焦虑)”的关系;根据常识判断,繁荣的经济可以降低求职者的焦虑;再结合上一道题我们知道,Gen Zs是务实和谨慎(practical and cautious)的一代;由此可以得出繁荣的经济并未降低求职者的焦虑,原文已有并未(have done little),选项B中的relieve(减轻)与我们的判断一致,因此答案为C。而其它的选项A define(定义)B maintain(保持)deepen(加深)和我们的判断都不一致。

39. Ahave a clear idea about their future jobs; 推断题。题目中明确出题段落(from Paragraph 3)。因此,第三段的第一句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己的理想工作选择专业)和选项D have a clear idea about their future jobs(对自己的未来工作有明确认识)相符合。根据原文中的第二句话(未来雇主最重要的特性是工作的稳定性,第二位是职业发展与培训,第三位是吸引人的目标)排除答案AB;选项C并未体现。

40. Bless adventurous;细节题。题干中的compared with millennials定位到文章第二段:the catch words for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(Gen Zs的口号是务实和谨慎);由此判断出选项B不爱冒险为正确答案。其余均与原文不不符。

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41 -45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A]Give compliments, just not too many.

[B] Put on a good face, always.

[C] Tailor your interactions.

[D] Spend time with everyone.

[E] Reveal, don' t hide, information.

[F] Slow down and listen.

[G] Put yourselves in others' shoes.

Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office

Is it possible to like everyone in your office? Think about how tough it is to get together 15 people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers. You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are some ways that you can get the whole office on your side

41.____

If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped around them. But you won't be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those who hid lost trustworthiness. The lesson is not that you should make your personal life an open book, but rather, when given the option to offer up details about yourself or painstakingly conceal them, you should just be honest.

42._____

Just as important as being honest about yourself is being receptive to others. We often feel the need to tell others how we feel, whether it's a concern about a project, a stray thought, or a compliment. Those are all valid, but you need to take time to hear out your coworkers, too. In fact, rushing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don't value their opinions. Do your best to engage coworkers in a genuine, back- and-forth conversation, rather than prioritizing your own thoughts.

43._____

It's common to have a“cubicle mate" or special confidant in a work setting. But in addition to those trusted coworkers, you should expand your horizons and find out about all the people around you. Use your lunch and coffee breaks to meet up with colleagues you don't always see. Find out about their lives and interests beyond the job. It requires minimal effort and goes a long way. This will help to gTow your internal network, in addition to being a nice break in the work day.

44._____

Positive feedback is important for anyone to hear. And you don't have to be someone's boss to tell them they did an exceptional job on a particular project. This will help engender good will in others. But don't overdo it or be fake about it. One study found that people responded best to comments that shifted from negative to positive, possibly because it suggested they had won somebody over.

45.______

This one may be a bit more difficult to pull off, but it can go a long way to achieving results. Remember in dealing with any coworker what they appreciate from an interaction. Watch out for how they verbalize with others. Some people like small talk in a meeting before digging into important matters, while other are more straightforward. Jokes that work one person won't necessarily land with another, So, adapt your style accordingly to type. Consider the person that you re dealing with in advance and what will get you to your desired outcome.

41. 答案是E Reveal, don’t hide, information

解析:根据段落转折句,你这样做对谁都没有好处。所以接下来就是作者的观点。他说一个研究发现观察者们一直对那些和他们坦诚的人评价很高,而对那些有所隐藏的失去信任。所以就是要真实,不要隐藏信息。

42. 答案是F Slow down and listen

解析:根据段落中心句: In fact, rishing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don’t value their opinions. 意思是实际上,急着表达你的观点可能会让同事们觉得你没有重视他们的观点。因此就是听取别人的观点。

43. 答案是D Spend time with everyone

解析:根据段落转折句,除了那些你信任的同事,你还应该扩大你的圈子,并且寻找所有你身边的人。因此就是要和每个人在一起。

44. 答案是A Give compliments, just not too many

解析:根据段落转折句,但是不要过度去做或者做假。应该做的内容就在下句,一个研究发现,人们对于从负面到正面的评价反应最好,也许因为这个评价表明他们有比其他人做得好。因此这就是要称赞,但是不能太多。

45. 答案是C Tailor your interactions

解析:根据段落中心句,最后一句:So, adapt your style accordingly to type. 意思是要相应地把你的风格适合于不同的类型。也就是因人而异的意思。

Section III Translation

It's almost impossible to go through life without experiencing some kind of failure. People who do so probably live so cautiously that they go nowhere. Put simply, they’re not real living at all. But, the wonderful thing about failure is that it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it.

We can choose to see failure as"the end of the world, "or as proof of just how inadequate we are. Or, we can look at failure as the incredible learning experience that it often is. Every time we fail at something, we can choose to look for the lesson we're meant to learn. These lessons are very important; they're how we grow, and how we keep from making that same mistake again. Failures stop us only if we let them. Failure can also teach us things about ourselves that we would never have learned otherwise.

For instance, failure can help you discover how strong a person you are. Failing at something can help you discover your truest friends, or help you find unexpected motivation to succeed.

参考译文:

人的一生几乎不可能不经历某种失败。但是,失败的妙处就在于,完全由我们来决定如何看待它。

我们可以选择将失败看作是世界末日。或者像以往一样,把它看作令人难以置信的学习经历。每当我们在某件事上失败时,我们会选择寻找应学习的教训。这些教训非常重要;他们教会我们如何成长,如何避免再次犯相同的错误。如果失败阻止我们前进,那么唯一的条件就是我们允许它的发生。

失败还可以教会我们认识自己,那是我们在别处永远无法学习到的。例如,失败可以帮助你发现自己的能力。失败可以帮助你发现最真实的朋友,或者帮助你找到预料之外的成功动力。

【解析】

一、总述

考题文章来自于知名网站Mind Tools上一篇名为“Overcoming Fear of FailureFacing Your Fear of Moving Forward”一文。文章略有删减,总词数151词,共3段,10句话。题目难度适中,题材常规,符合英语二翻译历年的考题规律。相似题材的文章曾经考过,如2010承受力这篇文章。考题贴近生活,总体难度较低,考生可从容应对,个别语句较为抽象,略有难度,下面进行解析。

二、难句剖析

1.【原文】But, the wonderful thing about failure is that it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it.

【分析】本句话易于简单,由主句加上that引导的表语从句构成,表语从句中嵌套这how引导的宾语从句。其中,the wonderful thing about failure 可以理解为失败的妙处be up to sb.表示取决于某人”;it's entirely up to us to decide how to look at it可以理解为完全由我们来决定如何看待它,把无灵主语it译成有灵主语我们,更符合汉语习惯。

【译文】但是,失败的妙处就在于,完全由我们来决定如何看待它。

2.【原文】Or, we can look at failure as the incredible learning experience that it often is.

【分析】本句话由主句和that引导的定语从句构成。其中,look at failure as the learning experience需要注意措辞,incredible是形容词,最常见的意思是不能相信的,但也有难以置信的、极大的、极好的之意;结合语境,翻译成难以置信的较为通顺,因此这半句话可理解为把它看作令人难以置信的学习经历,为避免上下文重复,可将failure译成代词

【译文】或者像以往一样,把它看作令人难以置信的学习经历。

3.【原文】Failures stop us only if we let them.

【分析】本句由主句和only if引导的条件状语构成,only if基本的词义为只要……就,只是在……的时候,只有的意思,也有除了的含义。本句考点之一在于状语从句翻译时需要前置,其二在于选取only if符合语境的词义。

【译文】除非我们允许失败的发生,否则失败无法阻止我们前进。

46. Directions:

Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

20191221日下午,考研英语落下帷幕。纵观英语二试卷,总体来看比较容易。帅波老师给大家解析一下英语二的大作文。本次英语二大作文考查的是饼状图,回顾过去英语二10年考试中,5年考查的是柱状图,3年考查的是饼状图,1年考查得失线形图,1年考查的是表格。可以看出柱状图和饼状图考查最频繁。本次考查的饼状图的话题仍然是关于大学生的话题。回顾过去10年考试中,有3年考查了与大学生有关的话题,分别是2013年考查大学生兼职情况,2016年考查某高校学生旅游目的调查,2019年考查某高校本科毕业生毕业去向统计。今年考查的是某高校学生使用手机的目的调查。

本篇英语二大作文的结构要分三段来写:第一段描述图表,第二段分析原因,第三段给出结论、趋势预测及建议。第一段描述图表要观察全面,不可遗漏有用信息。其中用手机学习的占主要比例,占59.5%,可以用这个句型来写:…take(s) a lion’s share, accounting for 59.5%,其它用手机的目的是打发时间、浏览信息和其它,分别占到20.5%17%2%,这三者可以放在一起用一个句子来搞定,……occupy 20.5%, 17% and 2% respectively

第二段分析原因,主要写这个现象的原因,尤其是用手机主要目的的成因。考生可以从这几个方面分析原因:第一,随着经济的发展,人民生活水平提高,几乎每个家长都会给学买一部手机,这一点是前提条件。第二,随着科技的进步,手机给人们带来了太多的便利,尤其是在学习、交流和查阅资料方面。

第三段写结论、趋势预测和建议。结论可以概括一点,大学生这样利用手机很符合年轻人的特点与时代特征。趋势预测大概说明一下未来几年这边趋势会发生怎样的变化,一般而言图表中的现象都可以体现出未来一段时间会继续持续一段时间。最后,可以提示年轻人不要沉迷于手机。

综上,今年的英语二大作文还是比较容易写出,具体写法请看下面的参考范文:



一段:As is apparently demonstrated in the chart above, we are informed some information concerning college students’ reading intentions with mobile phones in a certain university. To be more specific, with the help of cell phones, the proportions of college students’ spending on study take a lion’s share, accounting for up to 59.5%. Then those who would like to spend more time on goofing, browsing information and others occupy approximately 20%, 17% and 2% respectively.


二段: There are diverse components contributing to the above trend, but generally speaking, they may put down to the following two aspects. Initially, there is no doubt that recent years have witnessed the rapid development of economy, and people’s living standards have been improved remarkably, as a result of which, an increasing number of parents are likely to buy their children a smart phone, which may provide possibility for students to apply more advanced equipment into study, to the extent that their learning efficiency and reading horizons would be improved. Simultaneously, along with the development of technology and the advancement of the Internet, a growing quantity of college students’ reading habits have been changed because mobile phones would offer more convenience during their study, which should be taken into account.


三段: Based on the discussion above, a conclusion can be drawn safely that college students’ reading habits adhere to youngsters’ characteristics and comply with the trait of the new era. Given the data above, it is well predicted that this trend as reflected by the pie chart above will continue for a while in the near future. Nevertheless, there are also some potential risks if college students are too addicted to mobile phones; therefore, it is advisable for youngsters to arrange time reasonably during using cell phones.


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